It is a common inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the cavities that produce the mucus necessary for the nasal passages to work effectively.
It can be acute or chronic, it is usually caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, allergies, or an autoimmune reaction.
It will usually go away without medical intervention. However, if the symptom lasts more than a week, medical attention is required.

 

SYMPTOMS

  1. General symptoms will be
    • Fever
    • Bad breath
    • Tiredness
    • Toothache
    • Headache
  2. Advanced case, the following symptoms will present
    • Fever
    • Bad breath
    • Tiredness
    • Toothache
    • Headache

 

CAUSES

  1. Nasal polyps: these tissue growths can block the nasal passages or sinuses.
  2. Deviated nasal septum: the presence of a crooked septum (the wall between the nostrils) may restrict or block sinus passages, making the symptoms of sinusitis worse.
  3. Medical conditions: complications of conditions such as cystic fibrosis, HIV and other immune system-related diseases can lead to nasal blockage.
  4. Respiratory tract infections: bacterial, fungal, or viral infection can inflame and thicken your sinus membranes and block mucus drainage.
  5. Allergies such as hay fever: inflammation that occurs with allergies can block your sinuses.

 

RISK FACTORS

  • Had a history of respiratory tract infection such as common cold
  • Nasal polyps: small growth in the nasal passage that is inflamed
  • Weakened immunity caused by cystic fibrosis or AIDS
  • Allergic reaction to foreign substances such as pollen, dust and animal fur
  • A congenital structural defect in the nose: a deviated nasal septum
  • Asthma patients
  • With dental infection
  • With hay fever
  • Regular exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke

 

TYPES OF SINUSITIS

  1. Acute sinusitis: last up to 4 weeks
  2. Subacute sinusitis: last 4 to 12 weeks
  3. Chronic sinusitis: symptoms persist or continually return even after 12 weeks

 

COMPLICATIONS OF SINUSITIS

  • Vision problems
  • Can cause infections of the spinal cord and brain

 

HOW TO PREVENT THIS?

  • Avoid upper respiratory tract infection: minimize the contact with people who have colds and wash your hands regularly
  • Manage allergy
  • Avoid pollutants like cigarette smoke and polluted air
  • Use air humidifier
  • Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables to keep the immune system strong
  • Reducing stress
  • Exercise regularly
  • Getting plenty of sleep

 

TREATMENT

  1. Use of antibiotics
  2. Immunotherapy to suppress the allergic reaction
  3. Surgery
  4. Nasal corticosteroid to reduce inflammation in the nasal passage: fluticasone, triamcinolone, budesonide, mometasone and beclomethasone
  5. Oral or injected corticosteroid
  6. Saline nasal irrigation to rinse away irritants

 

HOME REMEDIES

  1. Rest and sleep well to increase immunity
  2. Rinse out a nasal passage with saline nasal irrigation
  3. Moisturize the sinus using hot water vapor

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

  1. Probiotics
  2. Bromelain
  3. Vitamin C
  4. N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
  5. Quercetin
  6. Antioxidant
  7. Sea-buckthorn